Thu, Feb 9, 2023
Volume 21, Issue 5 (September - October 2022)                   Payesh 2022, 21(5): 491-500 | Back to browse issues page

Ethics code: IR.SBMU.PHNS.REC.1401.026

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Yavari R, Rezaei Z, Keshavarz Mohammadi N. The influencing factors of compliance with health protocols related to Covid-19: a scoping review. Payesh 2022; 21 (5) :491-500
1- School of Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2- Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Science, Gonabad, Iran
Abstract:   (294 Views)
Objective(s): The outbreak of Covid-19 is a global health emergency. Compliance with health protocols is the main key to preventing the transmission of this disease. The purpose of the present study was to review the related research to investigate the factors affecting compliance with health protocols related to Covid-19.
Methods: This scoping review examined studies published in Persian and English language biomedical journals with related keywords including health protocols, masking, quarantine, distancing, hand washing, and risk perception in search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and SID.
Results: In all 22 relevant articles were entered into the review. The results led to the identification of more than 30 effective factors in compliance with health protocols. Factors such as gender, understanding the risk of disease, government measures, the role of friends and family, the media, and people's information sources played the biggest role in people's compliance with the protocols, respectively. Also, protective measures such as staying at home when feeling unwell, covering coughs and sneezes, and not using public transportation during the COVID-19 pandemic had reported having the highest compliance rate and the lowest was behaviors such as washing hands after sneezing and coughing as well as disinfecting the mobile phone.
Conclusion: To increase compliance with protocols, it is necessary to consider individual and environmental factors affecting compliance with protocols, which can be categorized as facilitators, barriers, and encouragers of target health behaviors as these factors are context and time-dependent. Timely identification of accurate factors in any country is a key step in formulating and designing interventions to manage pandemics such as Covid- 19
Full-Text [PDF 1024 kb]   (122 Downloads)    
type of study: Systematic Reviw | Subject: Public Health
Received: 2022/11/6 | Accepted: 2022/11/16 | ePublished ahead of print: 2022/11/19 | Published: 2022/11/20

1. Van Bavel JJ, Baicker K, Boggio PS, Capraro V, Cichocka A, Cikara M, et al. Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response. Nature Human Behaviour 2020;3:460-71 [DOI:10.1038/s41562-020-0884-z]
2. Scarano A, Inchingolo F, Lorusso F. Facial skin temperature and discomfort when wearing protective face masks: thermal infrared imaging evaluation and hands moving the mask. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020;17:4624 [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17134624]
3. Paykani T, Zimet GD, Esmaeili R, Khajedaluee AR, Khajedaluee M. Perceived social support and compliance with stay-at-home orders during the COVID-19 outbreak: evidence from Iran. BMC Public Health 2020;20:1-9 [DOI:10.1186/s12889-020-09759-2]
4. [Available from:
5. Ranjan R, Ranjan GK. Knowledge regarding prevention of novel coronavirus (COVID-19): an electronic cross-sectional survey among selected rural community. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development 2020;4:422-6
6. Suess T, Remschmidt C, Schink SB, Schweiger B, Nitsche A, Schroeder K, et al. The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in the prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomised trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012;12:1-16 [DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-12-26]
7. World Health Organization. Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19: interim guidance, 6 April 2020. World Health Organization.
8. Afrashteh S, Alimohamadi Y, Sepandi M. The role of isolation, quarantine and social distancing in controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. Journal of Military Medicine 2020;22:210-1
9. Chughtai AA, Seale H, Dung TC, Maher L, Nga PT, MacIntyre CR. Current practices and barriers to the use of facemasks and respirators among hospital-based health care workers in Vietnam. American Journal of Infection Control 2015;43:72-7 [DOI:10.1016/j.ajic.2014.10.009]
10. Tomczyk S, Rahn M, Schmidt S. Social distancing and stigma: Association between compliance with behavioral recommendations, risk perception, and stigmatizing attitudes during the COVID-19 outbreak. Frontiers in Psychology 2020;11:1821 [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01821]
11. Nivette A, Ribeaud D, Murray A, Steinhoff A, Bechtiger L, Hepp U, et al. Non-compliance with COVID-19-related public health measures among young adults in Switzerland: Insights from a longitudinal cohort study. Social Science & Medicine 2021;268:113370 [DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113370]
12. Keshavarz Mohammadi N. Diffusion of complexity science into health promotion research and practice: foundations for a complex future. Health Promotion International 2021;36:1213-8 [DOI:10.1093/heapro/daaa115]
13. Keshavarz Mohammadi N. One step back toward the future of health promotion: complexity-informed health promotion. Health Promotion International 2019;34:635-9 [DOI:10.1093/heapro/daz084]
14. Dryhurst S, Schneider CR, Kerr J, Freeman AL, Recchia G, Van Der Bles AM, et al. Risk perceptions of COVID-19 around the world. Journal of Risk Research 2020;23:994-1006 [DOI:10.1080/13669877.2020.1758193]
15. Khosravi M. Perceived risk of COVID-19 pandemic: The role of public worry and trust. Electronic Journal of General Medicine 2020; 17:203. 2020 [DOI:10.29333/ejgm/7856]
16. Ashrafi-Rizi H, Kazaempour Z. The Challenges of Information Services related to the COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Military Medicine 2020;22:207-9
17. Tajvar A. Comment on WHO advice that say it is not necessary for public to wear masks in the context of COVID-19 outbreak. Journal of Military Medicine 2020;22:212-3
18. Fallahi A, Mahdavifar N, Ghorbani A, Mehrdadian P, Mehri A, Joveini H, et al. Public Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding Home Quarantine to Prevent COVID-19 in Sabzevar city, Iran. Journal of Military Medicine 2020;22:580-8
19. Smith LE, Amlȏt R, Lambert H, Oliver I, Robin C, Yardley L, et al. Factors associated with adherence to self-isolation and lockdown measures in the UK: a cross-sectional survey. Public Health 2020;187:41-52 [DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2020.07.024]
20. Tang ACY, Kwong EWy, Chen L, Cheng WLS. Associations between demographic characteristics, perceived threat, perceived stress, coping responses and adherence to COVID‐19 prevention measures among Chinese healthcare students. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2021;77:3759-71 [DOI:10.1111/jan.14889]
21. Gallè F, Sabella EA, Da Molin G, De Giglio O, Caggiano G, Di Onofrio V, et al. Understanding knowledge and behaviors related to COVID-19 epidemic in Italian undergraduate students: the EPICO study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020;17:3481 [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17103481]
22. Park T, Ju I, Ohs JE, Hinsley A. Optimistic bias and preventive behavioral engagement in the context of COVID-19. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 2021;17:1859-66 [DOI:10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.06.004]
23. Maheshwari S, Gupta PK, Sinha R, Rawat P. Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among medical students: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Acute Disease 2020;9:100 [DOI:10.4103/2221-6189.283886]
24. Zysset AE, Schlatter N, von Wyl A, Huber M, Volken T, Dratva J. Students' experience and adherence to containment measures during COVID-19 in Switzerland. Health Promotion International 2021;36:1683-93. [DOI:10.1093/heapro/daab019]
25. Tso RV, Cowling BJ. Importance of face masks for COVID-19: a call for effective public education. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2020;71:2195-8 [DOI:10.1093/cid/ciaa593]
26. Barratt R, Gilbert GL, Shaban RZ, Wyer M, Hor S-y. Enablers of, and barriers to, optimal glove and mask use for routine care in the emergency department: an ethnographic study of Australian clinicians. Australasian Emergency Care 2020;23:105-13 [DOI:10.1016/j.auec.2019.10.002]
27. Wismans A, Letina S, Thurik R, Wennberg K, Baptista R, Barrientos Marín J, et al. Hygiene and social distancing as distinct public health related behaviours among university students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Social Psychological Bulletin 2020;15: 1-26 [DOI:10.32872/spb.4383]
28. Sharma M, Batra K, Davis RE, Wilkerson AH, editors. Explaining Brainwashing Behavior in a Sample of College Students during COVED-19 Pandemic Using the Multi-Theory Model (MTM) of Health Behavior Change: A Single Institutional Cross-Sectional Survey. Health Care 2021;9:1-15 [DOI:10.3390/healthcare9010055]
29. Barello S, Nania T, Dellafiore F, Graffigna G, Caruso R. 'Vaccine hesitancy'among university students in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Epidemiology 2020;35:781-3 [DOI:10.1007/s10654-020-00670-z]
30. Chan DK, Zhang C-Q, Weman-Josefsson K. Why people failed to adhere to COVID-19 preventive behaviors? Perspectives from an integrated behavior change model. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology 2021;42:375-6 [DOI:10.1017/ice.2020.245]
31. Ferng Yh, Wong‐McLoughlin J, Barrett A, Currie L, Larson E. Barriers to mask wearing for influenza‐like illnesses among urban Hispanic households. Public Health Nursing 2011;28:13-23 [DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1446.2010.00918.x]
32. Al-Hasan A, Yim D, Khuntia J. Citizens' adherence to COVID-19 mitigation recommendations by the government: A 3-country comparative evaluation using web-based cross-sectional survey data. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22:20634 [DOI:10.2196/20634]
33. Nivette A, Ribeaud D, Murray AL, Steinhoff A, Bechtiger L, Hepp U, et al. Non-compliance with COVID-19-related public health measures among young adults: Insights from a longitudinal cohort study. Social Science & Medicine 2021; 268:113370 [DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113370]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and Permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 All Rights Reserved | Payesh (Health Monitor)

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb