Relationship between information sources and resilience with anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic: an online investigation - Payesh (Health Monitor)
Wed, May 22, 2024
Volume 21, Issue 5 (September - October 2022)                   Payesh 2022, 21(5): 513-523 | Back to browse issues page

Ethics code: IR.ACECR.IBCRC.REC.1400.002

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Montazeri A, Tavoli A, Maftoon F, Farhangniya M, Naghizadehmoghari F, Nourani M, et al . Relationship between information sources, and resilience, with anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic: an online investigation. Payesh 2022; 21 (5) :513-523
1- Health Metrics Research Center, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
2- Faculty of Education and Psychology, Alzahra University. Tehran, Iran
3- Faculty of Psychology and Education, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1525 Views)
Objective: Over-exposure to misinformation or various information resources about covid-19 might cause mental health problems. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between information sources and resilience on the severity of general anxiety in people living in Tehran during the covid-19 pandemic. 
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran in 1400. Samples were adults over 18 years old. The data was collected via Interment. The link of electronic questionnaires was shared through social media such as WhatsApp, Telegram and Instagram. We asked the participant to answer the questionnaires through the link provided. We collected data on demographic information, and sources of the information. In addition, the General Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7) and the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) Questionnaires were administered. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed to analyze the data using the SPSS software version 23.
Results: In all 400 adults were participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 32.17± 12.42 years. The findings showed that, 23.8% of the respondent used social media for information about Covid-19, and 21.0% used news agencies or web sites. The mean GAD score was 6.16±3.76 indicating that 139 participants (34.8%) had minimum anxiety, 199 (49.8%) had mild anxiety, 48 (12%) had moderate anxiety and 14 (3.5%) had severe anxiety. Also, the mean BRS score was 3.14±0.63 indicating that 138 (34.5%) had low resilience, 248 (62.0%) had normal resilience, and 14 (3.5%) had high resilience. Logistic regression analysis showed that a significant association exists between decreased anxiety and higher resilience (P < 0.0001), and increased anxiety with more social media use (P = 0.005).
Conclusion: The source of information and resilience affected anxiety during the covid-19 pandemic. People who spent more time on social media during the corona epidemic experienced higher anxiety. The findings also confirmed that more resilience is effective in reducing the severity of anxiety.
Full-Text [PDF 1078 kb]   (803 Downloads)    
type of study: Descriptive | Subject: Health Economic
Received: 2022/08/17 | Accepted: 2022/10/23 | ePublished ahead of print: 2022/10/30 | Published: 2022/11/20

1. hong MY, Wang WC, Hsieh WC, Lee CY, Chiu NM, Yeh WC, Huang OL, Wen JK, Chen CL. Psychological impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome on health workers in a tertiary hospital. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2004; 185: 127-133 [DOI:10.1192/bjp.185.2.127]
2. World Health Organization. WHO R&D Blueprint: list of blueprint priority diseases. 2018.
3. Wheaton MG, Abramowitz JS, Berman NC, Fabricant LE, Olatunji BO. Psychological predictors of anxiety in response to the H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2012; 36: 210-218 [DOI:10.1007/s10608-011-9353-3]
4. Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, et al. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations General Psychiatry 2020; 33: e100213 [DOI:10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213]
5. Shahyad S, Mohammadi MT. Psychological impacts of Covid-19 outbreak on mental health status of society individuals: a narrative review. Journal of Military Medicine 2020; 22: 184-192
6. Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal Psychiatr 2020; 51: 1-7 [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102083]
7. Fillenbaum GG, Blay SL, Mello MF, Quintana MI, Mari JJ, Bressan RA, Andreoli SB. Use of mental health services by community-resident adults with DSMIV anxiety and mood disorders in a violence-prone area: Sao Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Affective Disorders 2019; 250: 145-52 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2019.03.010]
8. Raoofi A, Takian A, Akbari Sari A, Olyaeemanesh A, Haghighi H, Aarabi M. COVID-19 pandemic and comparative health policy learning in Iran. Archives of Iranian Medicine 2020; 23: 220-234 [DOI:10.34172/aim.2020.02]
9. Zimmerman MS, Shaw G Jr. Health information seeking behaviour: a concept analysis. Health Information & Libraries Journal 2020; 37: 173-191 [DOI:10.1111/hir.12287]
10. Kalantzi S, Kostagiolas P, Kechagias G, Niakas D, Makrilakis K. Information seeking behavior of patients with diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study in an outpatient clinic of a university-affiliated hospital in Athens, Greece. BMC research notes 2015; 8: 1-7 [DOI:10.1186/s13104-015-1005-3]
11. Aldousari EA. Seeking Health Information in Context: An Examination Cancer Patients' Information Seeking Behavior in Kuwait. Journal of the Social Sciences 2016; 44: 38-58 [DOI:10.34120/0080-044-001-008]
12. Ghazavi-Khorasgani Z, Ashrafi-Rizi H, Mokarian F, Afshar M. Health information seeking behavior of female breast cancer patients. Journal of education and health promotion 2018; 7: 138
13. Kimiafar K, Sarbaz M, Shahid Sales S, Esmaeili M, Javame Ghazvini Z. Breast cancer patients' information needs and information-seeking behavior in a developing country. The Breast 2016; 28: 156-160 [DOI:10.1016/j.breast.2016.05.011]
14. Ashrafi-rizi H, Kazempour Z. Information typology in coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis; a commentary. Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine 2020; 8: e19
15. Shim E, Tariq A, Choi W, Lee Y, Chowell G. Transmission potential and severity of COVID-19 in South Korea. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020; 93: 339-44 [DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.031]
16. Greene CJ, Burleson SL, Crosby JC, Heimann MA, Pigott DC. Coronavirus disease 2019: International public health considerations. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open 2020; 1: 70-77 [DOI:10.1002/emp2.12040]
17. Mokhatri-Hesari P, Moezzi B, Montazeri A. Infodemic, misinformation and the COVID-19. Health Monitor Journal of the Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, 2020; 19: 349-353 [DOI:10.29252/payesh.19.3.349]
18. Pan American Health Organization, Underestanding the infodemic and misinformation in the fight against COVID-19. This work is available under license CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO., 2020. URI:
19. Boberg S, Quandt T, Schatto-Eckrodt T, Frischlich L. Pandemic populism: Facebook pages of alternative news media and the corona crisis-A computational content analysis. arXiv preprint arXiv:2004.02566. [DOI:10.48550/arXiv.2004.02566]
20. Phillips, T. Coronavirus misinformation is dangerous. Think before you share. The Guardian, 13 march 2020.
21. World Health Organization, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: Mythbusters. World Health Organization. 5 May 2021. Available from:
22. Huremović D, editor. Psychiatry of pandemics: a mental health response to infection outbreak. Springer; 2019. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-15346-5]
23. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, Rubin GJ. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The lancet 2020; 395: 912-920 [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8]
24. Person B, Sy F, Holton K, Govert B, Liang A. National Center for Inectious Diseases/SARS Community Outreach Team. Fear and stigma: the epidemic within the SARS outbreak. Emergency Infection Disease 2004; 10: 358-63 [DOI:10.3201/eid1002.030750]
25. Tao N. An analysis on reasons of SARS-induced psychological panic among students. Journal of Anhui Institute of Education 2003; 21: 78-9.
26. Barzilay R, Moore TM, Greenberg DM, DiDomenico GE, Brown LA, White LK, Gur RC, Gur RE. Resilience, COVID-19-related stress, anxiety and depression during the pandemic in a large population enriched for healthcare providers. Translational Psychiatry 2020; 10: 1-8 [DOI:10.1038/s41398-020-00982-4]
27. Eyni S, Ebadi M, Torabi N. Developing a model of corona anxiety in students based on optimism and resilience: The mediating role of the perceived social support. Counseling Culture and Psycotherapy 2020; 11: 1-32
28. akavand A, Shirmohamadi F, Jafari JA, Hajiomidi S.The Mediation Roles of Alexithymia and Corona Anxiety in the Relationship between Resilience and Marital Conflicts during Quarantine. Journal of Psychological Studies 2021; 16: 143-159
29. Labrague LJ, De los Santos JA. COVID‐19 anxiety among front‐line nurses: Predictive role of organisational support, personal resilience and social support. Journal of nursing management 2020; 28: 1653-1661 [DOI:10.1111/jonm.13121]
30. Majidpoor TL, Aftab R. The mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and worry in the relationship between resilience and anxiety of being infected by COVID-19. Journal of Clinical Psychology 2021; 22: 75-86
31. Mosheva M, Hertz PN, Dorman IS, Matalon N, Pessach Itai M, Afek A, Ziv A, Kreiss Y, GrossRaz, Gothelf D. Anxiety, pandemic‐related stress and resilience among physicians during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Depression and anxiety 2020; 37: 965-971 [DOI:10.1002/da.23085]
32. Nasirzadeh M, Akhondi M, Jamalizadeh nooq A, Khorramnia S. Survey on Stress, Anxiety, Depression and Resilience due to the Prevalence of COVID-19 among Anar City Households in 2020: A Short Report. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences 2020; 19: 889-898 [DOI:10.29252/jrums.19.8.889]
33. Paredes MR, Apaolaza V, Fernandez RC, Hartmann P, Yañez MD. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on subjective mental well-being: The interplay of perceived threat, future anxiety and resilience. Personality and Individual Differences 2021; 170: 110455 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2020.110455]
34. Petzold MB, Bendau A, Plag J, Pyrkosch L, Mascarell ML, Betzler F, Rogoll J, Große J,Ströhle A. Risk, resilience, psychological distress, and anxiety at the beginning of the COVID‐19 pandemic in Germany. Brain and Behavior 2020; 10: e01745. [DOI:10.1002/brb3.1745]
35. Ran L, Wang W, Ai M, Kong Y, Chen J, Kuang L. Psychological resilience, depression, anxiety, and somatization symptoms in response to COVID-19: A study of the general population in China at the peak of its epidemic. Social Science & Medicine 2020; 262: 113261 [DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113261]
36. Solimany E, Afzood A, Sadeghi M, Salmabadi M. Determining the Contribution of Social Intelligence and Resilience Components in the Predicton of Covid-19-related Anxiety in Students. Pajouhan Scientific Journal 2021; 19: 16-24
37. Vakili S, Riazi Z, Safarpoor Dehkordi S, Sanagouye Moharer Gh. The Role of Positive and Negative Meta-emotions, Religious Beliefs and Resilience in Predicting Corona Anxiety of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research 2020; 15: 83-92
38. Zhang J, Yang Z, Wang X, Li J, Dong L, Wang F, Li Y, Wei R, Zhang J. The relationship between resilience, anxiety and depression among patients with mild symptoms of COVID‐19 in China: a cross‐sectional study. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2020; 29: 4020-4029 [DOI:10.1111/jocn.15425]
39. Chen H, Gao J, Dai J, Mao Y, Wang Y, Chen S, Xiao Q, Jia Y, Zheng P, Fu H. Generalized anxiety disorder and resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from China during the early rapid outbreak. BMC Public Health 2021; 21: 1830 [DOI:10.1186/s12889-021-11877-4]
40. Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Archives of internal medicine 2006; 166: 1092-1097 [DOI:10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092]
41. Naeinian MR, SHAIRI MR, SharifiM, Hadian M. To study reliability and validity for a brief measure for assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7). Clinical Psychology & Personality 2011; 3: 41
42. Patient Health Questionnaire (GAD-7).
43. Smith BW, Dalen J, Wiggins K, Tooley E, Christopher P, Bernard J. The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International journal of behavioral medicine 2008; 15: 194-200 [DOI:10.1080/10705500802222972]
44. Kashani VO, Najafi T. The Brief Scale of Resilience in Disabled and Veteran Athletes; Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version. Publish System 2016; 8: 49-55
45. Best P, Manktelow R, Taylor B. Online communication, social media and adolescent wellbeing: A systematic narrative review. Children and Youth Services Review 2014. 41: p. 27-36 [DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.03.001]
46. Dhir A, Yossatorn Y, Kaur P, Chen S. Online social media fatigue and psychological wellbeing-A study of compulsive use, fear of missing out, fatigue, anxiety and depression. International Journal of Information Management, 2018. 40: p. 141-152 [DOI:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.01.012]
47. Hoare E, Milton K, Foster C, Allender S. The associations between sedentary behaviour and mental health among adolescents: a systematic review. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 2016; 13: 1-22 [DOI:10.1186/s12966-016-0432-4]
48. Marino C, Gini G, Vieno A, Spada MM. The associations between problematic Facebook use, psychological distress and well-being among adolescents and young adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders2018; 226: 274-281. [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2017.10.007]
49. McCrae N, Gettings S, Purssell E. Social media and depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review. Adolescent Research Review 2017; 2: 315-330 [DOI:10.1007/s40894-017-0053-4]
50. Wang Y, McKee M, Torbica A, Stuckler D. Systematic literature review on the spread of health-related misinformation on social media. Social science & medicine 2019; 240: 112552 [DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.112552]
51. McGinnis D. Resilience, life events, and well-being during midlife: Examining resilience subgroups. Journal of adult development 2018; 25: 198-221 [DOI:10.1007/s10804-018-9288-y]
52. Ryff CD, Singer B. Flourishing under fire: Resilience as a prototype of challenged thriving. Keyes, Corey L. M., (Ed), Emory U, Atlanta, GA, US. Haidt, Jonathan, (Ed), U Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, US. American Psychological Association 2003. [DOI:10.1037/10594-001]
53. Khodabakhsh S, Ahmadi S. The relationship between subjective happiness and social media usage during the COVID-19 pandemic: the moderating role of resilience. Aloma 2020; 38: 105-112 [DOI:10.51698/aloma.2020.38.2.105-112]
54. Beutel ME, Glaesmer H, Wiltink J, Marian H, Brähler E. Life satisfaction, anxiety, depression and resilience across the life span of men. The Aging Male 2010; 13: 32-39 [DOI:10.3109/13685530903296698]
55. Fereydooni A, Heidari A, Saadi Z, Ehteshamzadeh P, Pasha R. Comparison of Effectiveness of Mindfulness and Happiness Training in Promoting Parent-Child Interaction Case Study: Mothers of Anxious Preschool Children in Shahrekord 2018. Journal of Community Health Research 2020; 9:37-45 [DOI:10.18502/jchr.v9i1.2573]
56. Han S, Oh J, Huh B, Kim H. Mediating effects of resilience between nurse's character and happiness for nurses in general hospitals. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration 2020; 26: 22-30 [DOI:10.11111/jkana.2020.26.1.22]
57. Short CA, Barnes S, Carson JF, Platt I. Happiness as a predictor of resilience in students at a further education college. Journal of Further and Higher Education 2020; 44: 170-184 [DOI:10.1080/0309877X.2018.1527021]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and Permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 All Rights Reserved | Payesh (Health Monitor)

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb